This is less of a diet and more of a lifestyle, which makes it one of the more sustainable options for long-term benefits. In essence, a plant-based diet means your meals are primarily composed of fruits, veggies, nuts, whole grains, and seeds. You can still eat meat when you’re plant-based, but it should be viewed as more of a side dish rather than the main component of your meals. My Diet and Exercise Routine! After 40!
At this point, you’ve spent around 20 or more years in the workforce. You’ve paid your dues and ran circles around your competition—resulting in your own office, possibly. So, why aren’t you owning that space like the boss you are? The first tweak for your office makeover: Invest in a height-adjustable stand-up desk; the crew at Eat This, Not That! uses Veridesk and swears by them. Here’s why this can be such a game changer for your waistline: A British study found that standing at work burned 50 more calories per hour than sitting. If that doesn’t sound like a lot, consider this: If you stand for just three hours of your work day, you’ll expend more than 30,000 extra calories per year—which amounts to about 8 pounds of fat!
Drinking water is essential for all your body’s functions and it dramatically ups your odds are of staying thin. In fact, one University of Utah study found that dieters who downed two cups of water before each meal lost 30 percent more weight than their counterparts who didn’t sip any H20 before noshing. If you don’t have a water cooler at your office, fill a BPA-free bottle with water at home. If you drink two cups before breakfast, lunch, and dinner, that just leaves you with two more cups before you meet your minimum recommendation for the day. So easy!

tips for losing weight after 40


Although it’s true that egg whites are low in calories, fat-free, and contain most of the protein found in an egg, eating the entire egg is beneficial to your metabolism. The yolk contains many metabolism-stoking nutrients, including fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids and—most significantly—choline, a powerful compound that attacks the gene mechanism that triggers your body to store fat around your liver. Worried about cholesterol? New studies have found that moderate consumption of two whole eggs per day has no negative effect on a person’s lipid (fat) profile and may actually improve it.
After rising to fame in the 1970’s following three consecutive Sports Illustrated spreads, Christie Brinkley has never left our hearts. The model, actress and businesswoman is now 64 years old and has founded several successful businesses. The former partner of Tommy Lee and face of Max Factor, Diet Coke, Chanel No.19, Nissan and Revlon, Brinkley now focuses on her beauty line and is raising her three children. She still regularly graces the covers of magazines and does editorial spreads.
People naturally lose muscle after 40, especially women after menopause. Because muscle burns more calories than fat, this can slow down your metabolism and make it harder to shake those stubborn pounds. Strength-training exercises -- lifting weights or doing body-weight exercises, like push-ups and squats -- at least twice a week can help you keep those muscles. The Best Supplements to Help Build Muscle Without Side Effects
Keeping a journal is great for preserving more than just memories; it’s an amazing tool for maintaining your weight loss, too. As we get older, our memories tend to become a bit less sharp than they were in our younger years, making it easy to forget those little bites of dessert we took, and making it even easier for them to show up as unwanted pounds on the scale. Fortunately, a study from Kaiser Permanente’s Center For Health Research reveals that individuals who consistently tracked their eating habits enjoyed a nearly 50 percent greater weight loss than those who skipped the journaling.
I recommend you start with a simple eating approach like my Free 1-Day Weight Loss Meal Plan that simplifies healthy eating into a sustainable and enjoyable plan. When you download your free meal plan, I'll also send you my VIP “3-Day Weight Loss Kickstart” Training (Value: $199) – 100% FREE – as my gift to welcome you to the Fit Father Project family.

i need help losing weight


When we don’t sleep enough, our hunger and stress hormones surge the next day, encouraging us to overeat — especially on sweet and fatty foods. The areas of our brain responsible for rational decision-making are compromised, making it much harder to say "no" to temptation. We also lose our lean muscle mass and burn less fat when we don’t sleep enough, setting us up for weight gain. Make getting 7 to 9 hours per night a priority, and watch your weight loss efforts improve dramatically. How I Lost Belly Fat In 7 Days: No Strict Diet No Workout!
The paleo diet has been picking up steam over the years thanks to its promise for a fitter physique and optimal health. Everyday Health explains the paleo diet only allows you to eat foods that were available for human consumption millions of years ago. That means all processed foods are out — but that’s not all. True paleo followers also don’t consume dairy, grains, or legumes.
Note: A English relative and Dr said to have my Testosterone checked. It never occurred to me to do that. He said getting that boosted would be like taking steroids and renew my motivation and energy to 25-30 yr old levels. So that's first, and cut out the beer ;)…. Oh, Doc said Coconut oil has been found to be bad, loaded with bad fats, the kind that raise the bad cholesterol, LDL. So that's out. Any other direction or guidance would be appreciated. Like healthy cooking/eating, getting some pork and fish in there, etc.
SOURCES: Fred Pescatore, MD author, The Hamptons Diet; and medical director, partners of integrative medicine. Samantha Heller, MS, RD, senior clinical nutritionist and exercise physiologist, New York University Medical Center, New York City. Victoria Shanta-Retelny, RD, Northwestern Memorial Hospital's Wellness Institute, Chicago. Rachel Beller, director, Brander Nutritional Oncology Counseling and Research Program, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, Calif.
When Pippa Middleton was preparing for her sister Kate’s wedding, she followed the Dukan Diet, which is a really popular French program that’s most similar to Atkins. But for her own wedding, Middleton was on the SirtFood diet. It’s extremely restrictive, and focuses on foods that are high in polyphenols — micronutrients found in plant foods — which supposedly help activate a person’s sirtuin (or “skinny”) genes. Workout For Older Men The A-40 Core Set
If you really want to speed up your metabolism, start with changes to your daily activity. You'll see the greatest benefit if you can move more throughout the day. Then make diet-friendly food choices that help you to feel more energized. And lastly, skip the metabolism-boosting pills and potions (unless your doctor prescribes it). Most of them don't work and some even cause harm.

We know, we know: It’s flu season. But we’re sorry to say that, after our research team here at Eat This, Not That! dug into the science, we have some bad news for you: Your hand sanitizer could be making you fat. Triclosan is a synthetic antibacterial agent frequently added to soap. It’s referred to by researchers as an “obesogen”—a compound that can potentially cause weight gain by disrupting the body’s endocrine (hormone) system. Studies suggest that triclosan can negatively affect the thyroid. As thyroid hormones control metabolism, any hit to the organ’s functionally could cause you to gain weight. The evidence is of particular concern for hospital workers, researchers say, as they’re exposed to the antibacterial agent on a regular basis and often show significantly higher levels of triclosan in their urine. A study in the journal PLOS One found a detectable level was associated with a 0.9-point increase in body mass index (BMI). If you’re a frequent hand-washer, experts recommend sticking to good ol’ soap—not the antibacterial kind—and to buy organic cleansers when possible.

40 body fat male


IN ALL MY YEARS counseling clients – including many celebrities and dignitaries who must remain unnamed – I've never recommended celebrity-endorsed quick fixes like cleanses over common sense. But whether I like it or not, celebrity fad diets are often mimicked by their fans of all ages, who may be vulnerable to eating disorders and unrealistic expectations about how these eating plans will actually change their lives (or not). Fortunately, there are a few celebrities whose eating, exercise and lifestyle habits my colleagues and I applaud. Here are a few famous folks you can follow with a clear conscious (for now, at least): Lose 10 Pounds This Month: Food to Eat, Exercise to Do, Thoughts to Think
The Australian trainer – who is also the man behind the bodies of Elle Macpherson and Rosie Huntington-Whiteley – recommends fresh, unprocessed foods and is essentially a low-carbohydrate diet. The diet kicks off with a 14 day kick-start comprising of a protein-heavy meat, eggs and vegetables. After two weeks, fruits and minimal amounts of dairy are incorporated back into the diet.

lose belly fat over 50 female


When it comes to heart-healthy grains, you’re likely well aware of the basics, like brown rice or quinoa, and their inherent benefits. But have you considered pearled barley? It’s steeped in fiber—about 10 grams to the 2.8 in quinoa—which, according to the Mayo Clinic, slashes your LDL cholesterol levels. (That’s the bad kind.) For more advice on your ticker, here are the 40 Ways to Prevent Heart Disease After 40. 
It can get overwhelming to keep up with all the superfoods out there, we know. But if there’s one amazing food you should be getting more of (and that we know you’re not), it’s seaweed. The sea plant is a great source of iodine and you can enjoy seaweed in sushi, broth-based soups, as chips or snacks, and more. “Without sufficient levels of iodine, your thyroid function becomes impaired and it’s harder for your body to burn fat,” says nutritionist Dana James of Food Coach NYC, who suggests sneaking sea vegetables into your diet at least three times a week. Seaweed also contains a compound called alginate, which has been shown to significantly cut fat absorption, says Tanya Zuckerbrot, RD, author of Miracle Carb Diet: Make Calories and Fat Disappear–with Fiber.

losing weight after 30


The editor and all-around fashion powerplayer says she avoids dieting in general (spoken like a true French woman), but does have a couple of preferred beverages for keeping her svelte, couture-ready figure. "I'm very lowkey with my body," she told StyleCaster recently. "I drink green tea all day long, and at night I drink vodka." As for fitness, she prefers ballet.
Make a quarter of your plate whole grains or starchy vegetables such as squash, corn or sweet potatoes, and a quarter lean protein. Serve with two teaspoons of healthy fats, and stick to fruit for dessert. This ensures that you get an appropriate balance of protein, carbs, and fat from nutrient-rich, filling foods. And make sure you keep an eye out for the six subtle signs you’re eating too many carbs. 10 दिन में मोटापा कम करने का नैचुरल तरीका ( How to lose weight naturally? )
Celebrity trainer Tracy Anderson recently launched a nationwide food delivery program that guarantees weight loss when combined with Anderson's workout methods. With a menu featuring options like Provençal eggs with eggplant zucchini and coconut flan with mango passion fruit sauce, as well as a separate program for vegetarians, it's no wonder Gwyneth Paltrow and Jennifer Lopez are hooked.
If you eat healthy and exercise regularly and still can’t lose weight, your thyroid might not be working like it should. This happens in about 5% of people, and it's most common in women and people over 60. In addition to weight gain, it can also cause fatigue, joint or muscle pain, and depression. Medications can help, so get it checked if you think it might be an issue.

diet for 50 year old woman to lose weight


"Celebrity plans have a tendency to promote a very quick fix, are hard to stick by and are touting all types of products and when the author doesn't have a degree in health, it can be very scary," agrees Rachel Beller, director of the Brander Nutritional Oncology Counseling and Research Program at the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, Calif. How to Lose Belly Fat in 1 Week - Lose Belly Fat Fast

Long-term stress can make you fat, studies have found. "When you're chronically stressed, your body is flooded with stress hormones, which stimulate fat cells deep in the abdomen to increase in size and encourage fat storage," says Peeke. "I call this toxic weight, because fat deep within your belly is more likely to increase your risk for heart disease, diabetes, and cancer." And stress hormones spark your appetite, making you likely to overeat. 5 Simple Steps to Lose Belly Fat Fast


Experts agree that including a weekly cheat meal into your healthy-eating plan can actually help you reach your weight loss goals. Having a strategy is key: “By planning your cheat meal, you know what you’ll be eating and can cut a few extra calories earlier in the day,” says Jim White, RD, ACSM Health Fitness Specialist and owner of Jim White Fitness & Nutrition Studios. “This also allows you to really pick a favorite food instead of wasting calories on something you didn’t enjoy.” Amy Shapiro, MS, RD, CDN, Real Nutrition NYC, gives similar advice. “Pick your poison. If you’re going out, pick your splurge. Are you going to dig into carbs like a bread basket or pasta or dessert? Or are you planning on tossing back a few cocktails?” She urges cheaters to avoid consuming all three of those common categories in one sitting. “Focus only on one,” she says, adding that by saving the others for another time you can “enjoy without going overboard.”

weight loss after kids


Studies show that how you eat and live contribute significantly to how you transition through menopause. And while Brenda vigilantly monitored her caloric intake, she was eating too much dairy and other inflammatory foods that created hormonal imbalances in addition to living an action-packed lifestyle with few outlets for stress reduction. Meanwhile, her regular, intense cardio workouts spiked Brenda’s fat-storing hormone insulin and stressed out her (already overworked) adrenal glands.
While Gaga's focus on whole foods is commendable, I probably wouldn't recommend her plan long-term since some of the foods she avoided are rich in important nutrients (a potato, for example, has twice the potassium of a banana and most of us don't meet our potassium needs). If you want to keep blood sugar levels stable without feeling like you're on a roller coaster, consume carbohydrates along with protein, fat or both (think almond butter on your toast or Greek yogurt on your baked potato). This powerful combo may calm your mood and make you feel more emotionally and physically satisfied. 

Colonoscopy Outpatient procedure in which a doctor inserts a long, flexible instrument - about 1/2 inch in diameter - into the rectum to view the rectum and entire colon. Many experts say colonoscopy is the most accurate colon cancer screening 50 (or earlier with certain risk factors) Every 10 years, more often for those with risk factors, a family history or history of colon polyps.  
Bodybuilders have long sworn by eating every few hours to keep their muscles fueled, but don’t discount the weight loss potential of three squares a day. A study in the journal Hepatology put two groups of men on weight-gain diets. One group divided the calories among three small meals with snacks in between while the second group ate the same number of calories in three square meals. While both groups gained weight, researchers found that belly fat—the dangerous kind that increases heart-disease risk—only increased in the high-meal frequency group.
Aim for a breakfast that has plenty of high-fiber carbs: When researchers at the University of Sydney in Australia compared the effects of high-fat and high-fiber-carbohydrate breakfasts, they discovered that people who ate the fatty meal got hungry sooner afterward. "High-fiber carbohydrates take longer for your body to digest and absorb than fats; thus they don't cause rapid changes in your blood sugar, so your hunger is kept at bay longer," says study coauthor Susanna Holt, Ph.D. Some good choices: a bran-rich breakfast cereal with low-fat milk; whole-grain toast topped with low-fat ricotta and sliced banana or berries; an egg-white veggie omelette with whole-grain toast.
Before you throw a French press at someone's head, read on. You don't have to eliminate coffee — but throw a few cups of green tea into the rotation and you may find that your pants fit a little looser. "Research shows that the caffeine and catechin in green tea has the ability to increase your metabolic function by 4-5 percent and improve fat oxidation by 10-16 percent," explains Bonfiglio Cunningham. Green tea comes with an extra perk, too — its antioxidant properties. "The antioxidants found in many teas fight free radicals in the body, improving the aging process and lowering the risk of disease."
Case in point: In a 10-week preliminary study led by Dr. Apovian and Dr. Westcott, baby boomers who exercised regularly and followed a moderate-calorie diet (1,200 to 1,500 calories for women; 1,500 to 1,800 for men), while simultaneously increasing their protein intake to 1.5 g/kg of ideal body weight, lost nearly 5 times more weight than participants who exercised without changing their diets. They also lost 4 more pounds than exercisers who increased protein intake but didn't keep calories in check. Even better: The calorie- and protein-conscious group gained more muscle, reduced their blood pressure, and dropped 2 inches from their waists.

how womeny calories should a 44 year old woman eat


I’m 45 years old, I’m st my highest weight ever and extremely frustrated. I have fybormyalga and recently had brain surgery so my exercise lever is low. But I’ve been doing the slimfast shakes for the last two months, I cut my calorie intake down but I’ve only lost 6 lbs. Is slimfast even a good way to go or should I try something else. Please help I need to lose 30 lbs.

Exercise can help you preserve lean muscle and increase your declining calorie-burn rate, but your children and parents are at ages that require extra care and time. Combine these obligations with a demanding job, and it's tough to meet the 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise and two strength-training sessions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

diet plans for women to lose weight fast


Drinking tea may boost your metabolism and help keep you slim, according to a report in the Journal of Nutrition. In one study, people who drank five 10-ounce servings of oolong tea for three days increased their metabolism by 3 percent more than people who drank water. That boost amounted to 67 calories per day. Over one year, that could add up to a 6-1¿2-pound weight loss. The researchers believe that the polyphenols in tea may be responsible for stimulating metabolism.

before and after weight loss women over 40


WHAT IT IS: Hollywood seems to be juiced over this six-juices-a-day, 1,200-calorie intense cleanse. While on the Pressed Juicery diet (said to be a major bloat beater), followers receive a daily supply of juices specially delivered every morning. Each fresh, nutrient-packed drink is designed to replace meals and snacks, and all alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine should be avoided. Joel Harper and Dr. Oz Do a 5-Minute Fat-Burning Workout
Making an omelet? Forget separating the white from the yolk and embrace the whole egg! The healthy fats within the yolks can help you feel fuller longer and curb cravings, explains Kayleen St. John, RD. Not to mention, choline—a belly fat-blasting nutrient—is only present in the orange part of the egg, rather than the whites, that most dieters tend to avoid. Next time you’re whipping up a scramble, crack the whole egg, yolk and all, into the pan.

healthy lifestyle after 40


Want to see those numbers on the scale get smaller? Try adding some fish to your meal plan. Research published in Obesity reveals that adding some omega-3s to subjects’ diet helped them lose more weight, keep it off longer, and limit those nagging hunger pangs. For women over 40, omega-3-rich fish, like salmon and tuna, are a particularly good choice; studies suggest that adding them to your diet may reduce your risk of hot flashes, too.
Increased insulin resistance might leave you feeling hungrier. Dividing up your food into three moderately sized meals and one to two small snacks will keep your blood sugar levels steady while combatting the urge to nibble on junk, Largeman-Roth says. Piling your plate with more low-calorie, high-volume foods—like fruits and vegetables—can help fill you up, too. (These 20 low-calorie salads that won't leave you hungry fit the nutritional bill.)

40 year old weight loss before and after


Still confused about the choice? Think of the look you want to create. And don’t even say that a 40 year old woman is predetermined to wear only classics! Actually, even one haircut, whether classic or not, can provide you with multiple styling options for creating various looks. From glamorous to bohemian, from bold to romantic, it’s up to you what you are going to deliver through your hairstyle.
Studies conducted at The Nutrition Institute at the University of Tennessee suggest that consuming calcium—which milk has plenty of—may help your body metabolize fat more efficiently. Other studies have shown that increased calcium intake from dairy products (though not from supplemental calcium carbonate) caused study participants to poop out more fat as opposed to it sticking around on the body. See more of our picks for the 20 Best Full-Fat Foods for Weight Loss! 10 Ways For Women to Lose Belly Fat After Menopause
Over the years, you’ve probably had moments where being able to get by on very little sleep was almost like a badge of honor. But as sleep medicine progresses and people are learning more about sleep health, the ties between your Zzzs and your LBs on the scale are becoming clearer. Losing just an hour of sleep each night for three days can prompt a surge in the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and a slump in the hormone leptin, which tells us when we’re full, says Norfolk, Va.-based clinical psychologist Michael J. Breus, Ph.D., coauthor of The Sleep Doctor’s Diet Plan. Deep sleep, on the other hand, fuels production of the fat-burning human growth hormone (HGH).
While quality zzz’s can become ever-elusive as you age from busy schedules, back pain, or menopausal symptoms like hot flashes or insomnia, getting enough sleep is an essential component to weight loss. A good night’s sleep actually burns calories! Plus, studies have shown a strong link between lack of sleep and over-eating the following day. This is because the hormones ghrelin and leptin are thrown out of whack when you don’t get enough sleep, leaving you feeling more hungry but less satiated at every meal, which leads to overeating. 44 Year Old Dad Bod Transformation | Lost Over 50 lbs
Say so long to those sugary happy hour drinks. A single flavored martini or blended drink can pack upwards of 600 calories per 8-ounce pour, and many menopausal women find that the blood vessel dilation that occurs with alcohol consumption can make hot flashes worse. If you do choose to drink, make sure you check out the 20 Tips For Choosing Healthy Alcoholic Drinks first.
Most celebrities (and unfortunately, even us common folk) frequently drop weight by following unrealistic plans and by cutting out favorite foods. But why would you ever want to cut love out of your life in any form? The key to successful, long-term weight loss and maintenance is learning how to shift your priorities and still include foods you love, but make the majority of your foods those that will also make you love the way you look and feel. A diet should never be like a light bulb that you turn on and off. Like anything else in life, balance is the goal, not black-and-white thinking. What's Causing Your Belly Fat After 50 and How To Lose It
While weight loss after 40 is absolutely possible, keeping your expectations about how fast you’ll shed those pounds in check can help you stay on track in the long run. Managing your expectations about your weight loss can help keep you from getting discouraged if you’re not slimming down as fast as you had hoped, making it easier to stick to your plan and recover from those little hiccups that could otherwise send you face-first into the next brownie sundae you see.
This fad diet reminds many of Atkins — and if you want to live life like Kate Middleton’s sister, you should certainly try it. Healthline explains Dr. Pierre Dukan, a French general practitioner, created the diet. It consists of meals that are high-protein and low-carb. There are also four phases of the diet: The first two are when you’ll lose the most weight, and the last two are designed for the long-term maintenance of your goal weight.
Hello, all. I am 76 years old and just learning how to take care of myself. Coming from an age where women were not taught about nutrition, exercise, etc., this is proving to be a challenge. I now find that rarely is there any information for this age group. I just joined a gym and have a personal trainer and a new health care provider all who are making my life better and more enjoyable. I would like for articles to be expanded to include those of us in our 60s-80s. I like going to the gym and like the people that I meet there. I also see more seniors my age exercising but mostly men. I am welcomed there and everyone is very supportive. I wish more women would discover this opportunity. I like to also be around young people. Thank you. 

losing fat over 50


WHAT IT IS: Developed by former scientist Dr. Barry Sears, The Zone Diet involves getting 40 percent of your daily total caloric intake from carbohydrates, 30 percent from carbs and 30 percent from fats. According to Sears, balancing the correct amount of amino acids with carbs helps control the appetite to prevent over-eating (which leads to weight gain). Followers eat three portion-controlled meals and two snacks a day, preventing you from getting too hungry – or cranky. Hollywood hottie Jennifer Aniston was such a big fan, some have even called it the “Jennifer Aniston Diet." Weight Loss Cardio Workout at Home | 35 Minutes
Having a salad for lunch or dinner fills you up with belly-flattening fiber and nutrients, and adding one more ingredient will really stoke your metabolism: salmon. You already learned the metabolism-boosting effects of protein, but with salmon in particular you'll also get a dose of omega-3 fatty acids. In a study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, supplementing diets with fish oil for six weeks increased lean muscle and decreased fat. Other studies have shown similar effects. Scientists speculate this reaction may be due to fish oil's ability to reduce levels of fat-storage enzymes in the body.
Trainer to the stars Tracy Anderson created the crazy weight-loss plan known as the Baby Food Diet, which she calls a “cleanse.” Several of her clients tried it, but it was when Jennifer Aniston jumped on the bandwagon that Gerber got excited.  She lost 7 pounds in one week, something Anderson said was possible because the diet gave her body a "boost."

A lot of people can lose weight without breaking out the calculator at every meal. But as we age, our metabolism slows and we burn fewer calories per day than we did when we were younger, Bede explains. Because of this, it’s essential to ensure that you are not consuming more calories than you’re burning—so if you want to lose lbs, start counting.  How To Lose Belly Fat After 40
It’s a simple truth that most women don’t look forward to getting older. Shocker, I know. Considering society’s general attitude toward aging, it’s easy to understand why. And yet, there are some really amazing things about reaching your fifth, sixth, seventh decade and beyond. One of the biggest? Knowledge based on life experience—something no twenty-something can claim.
If you're genetically predisposed to gain weight easily, that may be another strike against you. Even if you don't actually gain weight, you may still gain inches around the waist. This weight gain can be so frustrating, it's easy to become obsessed with losing it, starving yourself or exercising too much or maybe even looking into the latest plastic surgery procedure.
Case in point: In a 10-week preliminary study led by Dr. Apovian and Dr. Westcott, baby boomers who exercised regularly and followed a moderate-calorie diet (1,200 to 1,500 calories for women; 1,500 to 1,800 for men), while simultaneously increasing their protein intake to 1.5 g/kg of ideal body weight, lost nearly 5 times more weight than participants who exercised without changing their diets. They also lost 4 more pounds than exercisers who increased protein intake but didn't keep calories in check. Even better: The calorie- and protein-conscious group gained more muscle, reduced their blood pressure, and dropped 2 inches from their waists.

weight loss over 40 success stories


One of the most admired and revered women in India as well as in the world. Through her successful career, she has established herself as one of the most popular and influential women in India. Rai has received numerous awards and accolades, and she was also awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2009. No doubt, she’s the “most beautiful woman in the world”.

how to lose weight at 40 years old women

×