Eat as many raw vegetables as you like—especially leafy greens. Throw them in an omelet, blend them into a green smoothie with some stevia and ice, make a huge salad with a drizzle of oil and lemon, or simply snack on some raw celery sticks. You should be eating 5 – 7 servings of veggies a day, and you can cram a lot of those into one big smoothie or salad.
Derived from the Japanese tencha leaf and then stone-ground into a bright-green fine powder, matcha literally means “powdered tea,” and it’s incredibly good for you. Research shows the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in matcha to be 137 times greater than the amount you’ll find in most store-bought green tea. EGCG is a dieter’s best friend: Studies have shown the compound can simultaneously boost the breakdown of fat and block the formation of belly-fat cells. One study found men who drank green tea containing 136 milligrams of EGCG—what you’ll find in a single four-gram serving of matcha—lost twice as much weight than a placebo group and four times as much visceral (belly) fat over the course of three months. Need one more reason for tea time? A single serving sneaks in four grams of protein—that’s more than an egg white! My Diet and Exercise Routine! After 40!
While it may seem like a small change, taking the stairs instead of the elevator can make a big difference when it comes to your weight loss. According to research conducted at McMaster University, short bursts of stair climbing significantly improved study subjects’ cardiovascular health. Better yet, an average-weight person can expect to burn more than 10 calories per flight of stairs—not an insignificant number over the course of a week or month. Need more incentive to break a sweat? The 7 Things That Happen to Your Body When You Exercise will have you convinced.
Feel like your metabolism is stuck in slo-mo? Coaxing your body to burn calories more efficiently doesn't require daily Spinning sessions or hours at the weight rack (though being in shape and building more muscle definitely helps). From adding an extra ingredient to your smoothie to watching a funny YouTube video, you can fan your metabolism's flames in just minutes a day by adopting these research-backed habits. 10 Minute Cardio Dance Abs Workout: Burn to the Beat- Keaira LaShae
Don’t have a dinner companion? Try eating in front of a mirror instead. According to a study published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, people who ate in front of a mirror were more acutely aware of their poor food choices, finding them less pleasurable. And for more clever hacks, check out these 50 Genius Weight-Loss Motivation Tricks.
how to lose belly fat after 40
Bone broth is exactly what it sounds like: when animal bones simmer in water for a while, the process extracts their collagen and other nutrients such as glucosamine. According to a study published in the journal PLoS One, when overweight, middle-aged adults took a glucosamine supplement, they were able to decrease inflammation biomarker serum CRP levels by 23 percent more than those who didn’t supplement their diets with glucosamine. In addition, bone broth contains the amino acids glycine and proline in addition to gelatin, which can help rebuild your gut lining to help your body’s biome function on its A-game.
You’ve heard this buzzy phrase a bunch of times by now, right? It’s way more mainstream than you may realize, though—and much more attainable than you think. The basic rule of eating clean—and, forgive us for watering it down, nutrition pros and clean-eating fanatics—is to eat more real food and less fake food. Doritos are not food. Those sketchy frozen enchiladas by Big Store Name Brand are often not much better. And that cream of something soup you mix into every chicken dish is a way of life that’s making your waistline expand. To dig into how to be a clean eater, check out our Ultimate Guide to Eating Clean. If you start living by more of these rules, your jaw might drop the next time you step on the scale!
You've heard this one before, but it's worth repeating! Eating smaller meals more often throughout the day can help fire up your fat-burning furnace. Susie Akers, director at the Aamoth Family Pediatric Wellness Center at MetroHealth and gastroenterology dietitian, recommends you consume at least three to four times a day instead of only one to two times to keep your metabolism up and avoid excessive portions with large meals.
Well, I’m tired, and tired of looking in the mirror wondering where my bod went? When I hit 19, I went active military from 87′ to 95’… Army SFOD then USMC 4 yrs reserve. I ran 5 miles 5x wk, did 80 push ups, 69 sit ups, 25 pull ups, <<< all in the military's required 2 minutes, followed by cool-down stretching, etc. 6'1" & 172 lbs… Lean and Mean as we said. I never smoked either. So, five years after leaving the service and ending up with a job that was lucrative, it was very, very low from a physical standpoint. I gradually was down to 2.5 miles a day x5 a wk, then just walking at work and that was all my physical activity. No more push ups, sit ups, pull ups, nothing. My energy dropped off a cliff. Fast forward to 2005. I went from 5-6 glasses of red wine a week, to 3 beers a day x5 a wk, don't eat well, no energy and have a aweful beer belly (looks like I'm pregnant), my arms and legs are thin, and my 30" waist in 2002 is now 36" , I'm 210 lbs, my belly/midsection use to be 28" in 1998, now it's 55" measuring around belly area, blood pressure is up, etc…. Sadly, my newer friends from 2000 to current are similar in shape. They all say: your 48, getting a belly is a part of life, just live with it… You'll never get back in any kind of shape… Well that last remark lit the proverbial, motivational fire under my back side, but I still just don't have the drive. The discipline is there. I need to start out slowly so as to not hurt thy self. Tried push ups and could ONLY do one!!!! I'm 40 lbs heavier now too don't forget. Sit ups?….. one…. Running: one block…. Never had a 6 pack, as those are genetic, maybe a 2 or 3 pack. I need to help myself before it causes health issues I'll regret. Lastly, Doc says to start slowly. He was Air Force and he recommended the pre-basic training physical prep program to slowly get a good routine going again, but I need a "beer belly gone in 30 days" kind of drop first off. I've heard lemon juice, lemon rind and garlic in 50% water, 50% juice, might help along with broccoli, celery, asparagus and salmon jerky, and cut out the BEER, go back to a glass of red wine every other day. He said red wine and 70% or higher pure dark chocolate are good for lowering blood pressure too. Thanks.
High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is where you exert maximum effort through quick, intense bursts of exercise followed by short recovery periods, and it’s a great way to amp up your weight loss. If you’re currently only using doing steady state cardio workouts like jogging or elliptical weight loss exercises, for example, you could benefit from incorporating HIIT workouts to your regimen. Because the intervals get your heart rate more elevated, they help you work harder, not longer. Studies show that HIIT also burns more fat than other workouts. If you’re looking to try HIIT for the first time, check out these HIIT workouts on Get Healthy U TV!
Aerobic exercise may not build big muscles, but it can rev up your metabolism in the hours after a workout. The key is to push yourself. High-intensity exercise delivers a bigger, longer rise in resting metabolic rate than low- or moderate-intensity workouts. To get the benefits, try a more intense class at the gym or include short bursts of jogging during your regular walk.
losing fat at 50
Non-exercise adaptive thermogenesis (NEAT) is the next part of your metabolism, and it's basically made up of those extra things your body does that aren’t really exercise, but that still cost energy (think: fidgeting, shivering, and all the things you do to go about your day, like walking and standing). It accounts for about 20 percent of your metabolism, and it can vary from day to day depending on things like what you’re doing to what you're eating.
Muscles are what keeps our metabolism high and as we age, our muscles slowly start to get smaller, therefore allowing our metabolism to slow down. To counteract this, Shapiro recommends that we start lifting weights. “No, you won’t get big and bulky. In fact, you’ll stay lean,” she says. That’s because weight training causes you to burn more calories per workout than cardio sessions, and you continue to burn them post workout. And that’s not all—click here to discover 40 Ways to Lose 4 Inches of Body Fat!
You could say one of Oprah's favorite things is the diet she follows from Weight Watchers, which U.S. News ranks No. 1 for weight loss. Joan Salge Blake, a registered dietitian in Boston and author of "Nutrition & You," picks Oprah as a diet "celebrity crush" because Oprah achieved her 40-pound weight loss while enjoying an eating pattern and lifestyle that contains less sugar and heart-unhealthy saturated fat, and more fruits and veggies, movement and mindfulness. Unlike most celebrity-endorsed diet programs, Salge Blake points out that Weight Watchers is reasonably affordable. But if Weight Watchers is still more than you'd like to spend to trim pounds, try logging on to MyPlate.gov for a free weight-reducing diet you can tailor to your needs.
The paleo diet has been picking up steam over the years thanks to its promise for a fitter physique and optimal health. Everyday Health explains the paleo diet only allows you to eat foods that were available for human consumption millions of years ago. That means all processed foods are out — but that’s not all. True paleo followers also don’t consume dairy, grains, or legumes.
But a simple plan isn't always an easy plan. Changing your daily movement habits can be hard. So I've developed this 3-step plan to increase your metabolism while you keep your food intake the same. You'll create the energy deficit needed for weight loss without an expensive diet or hard-to-find foods. Follow the program for 2-3 weeks to increase your energy levels, boost your metabolism and put your weight loss program into hyperdrive.
Kerrie’s done this by changing up her exercise and doing lots of high intensity and Tabata workouts, by adding in weights and resistance bands, by regularly eating her target calories and eating 6 meals a day, following the 28 Day Weight Loss Challenges, regularly mixing up her food (e.g. swapping sweet snacks for savoury, smoothies for breakfast then swapping to smoothies in the afternoon, doing regular 3 day cleanses etc) and by not cutting out any food groups.
When you’re busy with work, kids, and life, you can be tempted to grab food on-the-go or multitask through a meal. But you’re more likely to overeat -- and be hungry again soon after -- if you don’t focus on your food. Sit down for meals and tune in to what’s on your plate (not what’s on your TV or computer screen). That helps your brain realize when you’ve had enough.
We all know that choosing soda over H2O is a poor decision when it comes to maintaining health, but why is the classic bev so bad? Studies link regular consumption of sugary drinks to heart disease, and if that’s not alarming enough: One longitudinal study followed 80,000 women over the course of 22 years and found that those who consumed a can a day of sugary drink (such as Coke or Pepsi) had a 75 percent higher risk of developing gout than women who rarely imbibed. Menopause with Sam - 4 How to treat belly fat
According to a review published in the journal Obesity, legumes—including beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas—could keep you from the snack drawer until dinner. Researchers found that subjects who consumed between ¾ and 1 cup of legumes daily felt as much as 31 percent fuller than those who didn’t! But there’s a catch: Although participants felt fuller when they ate legumes, they didn’t always eat less throughout the day. It’s still up to you to tune out the call of cravings—a completely different beast than hunger. But when it comes to willpower boosters, beans are a great way to get a jumpstart. They’re also one of the 30 Best Food for 6-Pack Abs. 7 Steps For Losing Weight After 50
At 53 years old, Sandra Bullock would have to have one of the most impressive careers in Hollywood history. She has played too many major parts to name, as well as being nominated and winning a hoard of awards. Since gracing our screens in 1987, the mother of two has cemented herself into the fabric of the film industry. She is currently leading the all-female cast of the 2018 adaption of Ocean’s 8 alongside Cate Blanchett, Anne Hathaway, Sarah Paulson and Rihanna.
“After age 40, men may lose up to 8 percent of their muscle mass per decade,” Bede explains. A study analysis in Nutrition in Clinical Practice reports that loading up on protein may be enough to prevent or mitigate age-related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia. You may think you don’t need to pile it on now that you’re not pumping iron like you once were, but the researchers recommend middle-aged men still aim for at least 25 to 30 grams of high-quality protein with each meal.
If you’re having trouble losing weight after your 40th, it’s time to ask your doctor about a thyroid screening. Women are more likely to develop thyroid health issues than their male counterparts, which can lead to symptoms like weight gain, fatigue, and depression. Fortunately, for many people, the problem can be fixed with medication and dietary modification, getting you back on track to the body you want in no time.
Want to see those numbers on the scale get smaller? Try adding some fish to your meal plan. Research published in Obesity reveals that adding some omega-3s to subjects’ diet helped them lose more weight, keep it off longer, and limit those nagging hunger pangs. For women over 40, omega-3-rich fish, like salmon and tuna, are a particularly good choice; studies suggest that adding them to your diet may reduce your risk of hot flashes, too.
It’s time to sniff your way slim. Switching up your fragrance can do more than make you smell delicious, it can also help you shed those extra pounds as you age. The results of a study published in the Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgery reveal that sniffing scents like apple and mint increased weight loss among study subjects, so seek out fragranced products, like tea tree shampoo or apple-inflected perfume, for maximum effect. 9 Ways That Can Help You Reduce Menopausal Belly Fat
Seafood sources of omega-3s such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, and fish oil supplements provide forms of omega-3s known as EPA and DHA, the types that your body can use most easily (and the types with plenty of research backing). Plant sources like walnuts, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and hemp seeds provide ALA omega-3s. ALA must be converted to EPA and DHA in your body through a process that isn’t super efficient, so plant-based sources should be supplemented with fish! Eating at least two servings of omega-3-rich fish every week covers you for your daily recommendation of 500-1,000 mg. If you don’t like fish, here are some omega-3-rich foods you can eat instead.
A study published in October 2010 in the Annals of Internal Medicine compared two groups of middle-aged people trying to lose weight and their sleep patterns. For four days, one group slept four-and-a-half hours per night, and the second slept eight-and-a-half hours per night. The members in the first group lost 60 percent more muscle and burned 55 percent less fat over the course of the study, demonstrating how sensitive the metabolism is to a lack of adequate sleep — even over a short period of time. 7 Simple Tips To Get A Flat Belly After 40!
I loved this book and have just bought 8 copies to give to some of my family members and friends who are over 40. I got the chance to read an advanced copy and it was sassy, full of life, encouraging and covered so many of the life events that seem to come with these beautiful and yet sometimes difficult years. The compilation of essays make it a fun read and allow you to hang out with so many lovely and diverse woman who are over 40. The only thing better would be having them all in the same room for a live chat. If you are longing to embrace your 40's and beyond this book is for you and all your friends.
47-year-old Jennifer Connelly started out as a child model before making her acting debut in 1984. She went on to win an Academy Award and a Golden Globe for her role in A Beautiful Mind. She has since played several other significant parts. With two children she has been included in the lists of world’s most beautiful women by Time, Vanity Fair and Esquire, as well as the Los Angeles Times newspaper.
Losing weight requires you to burn more calories than you consume. For 1 pound, you have to expend an excess of 3,500 calories. For a safe, one-pound-per-week loss, reduce your caloric intake by 250 and burn 250 calories through exercise. If you can’t exercise every day, that number still has to be achieved through what you eat every day, and how much you exercise on workout days.
During his stretch as one of the best point guards to ever play for the Knicks, Carmelo Anthony has been known to cleanse. Specifically, he’s taken part in a 15-day spiritual cleanse called “the Daniel Fast” (reports say it affected his game). Foods you can’t eat: meat, carbs, dairy, coffee, alcohol, and sugar. Foods you can eat: vegetables, whole grains.
how to kickstart your metabolism after 40
Beyoncé recently teased fans on a big announcement, then she appeared on Good Morning America and disappointed fans by announcing how she got her flawless body. Beyoncé is known to be a big advocate of the vegan meal-delivery service 22 Days Nutrition, which she followed in conjunction with a 22-day vegan challenge. Following a vegan diet, however, takes proper planning to ensure you take in all of your food groups and important nutrients. So unless you have specialized needs, there’s no need to completely cut out animal foods like meat and dairy.
best age to lose weight
Thinking about having a cocktail — or two — before dinner? Think again. Having a drink before a meal causes people to eat around 200 calories more, several studies show. Drinking with dinner isn't such a good idea either: Other research has found that the body burns off alcohol first, meaning that the calories in the rest of the meal are more likely to be stored as fat. If you do have a cocktail craving, stick to wine, which packs only 80 calories a glass — or minimize the calories by drinking a white-wine spritzer (two ounces of wine mixed with two ounces of seltzer). How to start a healthly lifesyle and lose weight after 40 I Get fit and healthy
According to the American Heart Association, individuals who get merely 2 percent of their total calorie intake from yogurt reduce their risk of developing hypertension by 31 percent. That amount to one six-ounce cup every three days. For our money, spring for protein-rich Greek yogurt. You’ll experience higher energy levels and stronger muscle function.
aging and weight loss
Lower Metabolism: There are a couple of things that happen to your metabolism after the age of 40. First, your basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreases and, second, you expend less total energy (TEE) during exercise. Some experts suggest metabolism can decrease by about 5% for every decade after 40, which means you need about 60-100 fewer calories every 10 years. If you sit more, eat more, exercise less and deal with more stress throughout that decade, you'll probably need even fewer calories than that. Add that to the fact that you burn fewer calories during exercise and you've got yourself an equation for weight gain.
The older, wiser, less-bendy sister of yoga, meditation is an amazing activity that people can reap major rewards from. Studies show that people who regularly practice mindfulness meditation have more activity in their left prefrontal cortexes, which makes you calm and happy. Plus, a 2014 study found that individuals who meditate are less likely to overeat or give in to emotional eating. To get started, unroll a yoga mat or sit on a carpet in a sunny room (east-facing if possible) and take five uninterrupted minutes thinking about something that you’re grateful for. You’re supposed to lose a few LBs, but even if you don’t, we guarantee you’ll still be glad you made meditation part of your life.
Though people are still talking about the lemon juice and cayenne crash diet that got her into Dreamgirls shape in 2006, these days Bey's much healthier detox method is eliminating all animal products from her diet. It's part of her trainer Marco Borges' 22 Days Nutrition plan—and the singer loves it so much, that she even teamed up with him to create a meal delivery service for the company. "There's no frankenfood," Borges tells us. "It's founded on the principle that it takes 21 days to make or break a habit. It's a plant-based diet designed to create lifelong habits that will empower you to live a healthier lifestyle, lose weight or to reverse serious health concerns." (Our social media editor, Kate Winick, tried it to great results.) My Inspiring Fitness Journey // From FAT to SKINNY to FIT Over 50!
From her pepperoni-pizza pantsuit to her cow print leather top, if you’ve learned anything about Beyoncé lately—aside from the fact that the woman really can wear anything—it’s that she and Jay-Z are on a vegan adventure. The power couple recently embarked on a 22-day plant-based challenge, complete with mouthwatering Instagram pics hashtagged #22daysvegan. But Queen B and her Brooklyn beau aren’t the first to experiment with dieting. Take a look back at some memorable celebrity diets through the years.
Somebody in a position of power needs to find the courage to state these things are not happening by chance, they are part of the plan to totally change the makeup of the European population. The European of the future will be a 'negroid-euro-asian' resembling North africans'.This is 'their' plan. Will we just sit and watch as our history, culture and race are eliminated?
how does a woman over 50 lose belly fat
Not all sugars are created equal, which is why we prefer to sweeten things up with a natural source. Unlike artificial sweeteners, honey contains minerals like copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc that help boost your immune system and overall well-being. Next time your a.m. oats are tasting a bit bland, try drizzling in some honey and a sprinkle of cinnamon, our next must-buy superfood. The Best way to lose weight fast for women over 40 - How to lose weight fast for women over 40
Your bones are constantly renewing themselves; old bone is broken down and new bone is made all the time. Up until about age 30, your bones are built up and broken down at a fairly even pace, but after that point, your bones start to break down at a slightly faster pace than your body can rebuild them. Calcium is essential for building new bone, so getting enough is important for boosting bone regrowth as you age. You also need to get enough vitamin D to make sure you’re absorbing calcium. How to Lose Belly Fat in Menopause
In your 20s and 30s, you may have been able to lose weight with a walking program or simply by staying more active during the day. But in your 40s, losing weight takes smarter planning. You need three types of exercise to slim down, tone up and stay healthy. Make sure you incorporate cardiovascular exercise, strength training and stretching into your weekly program. Each type of exercise provides unique weight loss benefits.
natural weight loss supplets for women over 50
Adding a daily walk to your routine means you’ve taken the first step toward achieving a healthier weight. Middle-aged and senior women have an increased risk of hip fracture, but staying active can help you burn more calories and lower your chances of suffering an injury. Research suggests that regular exercise can reduce a person’s risk of osteoporosis, and shaving off those extra pounds means you’re putting less strain on your joints, making it easier to prevent a fall that can keep you sidelined. How To Build Muscle After 40 (Best Strategies & Benefits)
Blaming your belly fat or those extra five pounds on the fact that you're getting older? Well, now's the time to stop believing that weight gain is an inevitable part of aging. Yes, as we get older our hormone balance shifts in ways that encourage weight gain. For example, testosterone and DHEA levels decline in men, and women's insulin-regulating hormones become less effective. These changes can decrease muscle mass, slow down your metabolism (some reports say by about 2 percent per decade after age 30), and sap your energy while increasing belly fat and insulin resistance. But it’s not hopeless! The more we eat clean, live clean, and work out, the better our hormone balance will be — and the healthier our metabolisms will remain. Here are some tips for mastering weight loss and your metabolism beyond age 40.
Everyone knows that Tom and Gisele don’t eat strawberries, but they also don’t eat white sugar, white flour, tomatoes, peppers, mushrooms, or eggplants. So what do they eat? According to their chef, Alan Campbell, “80 percent … vegetables … and whole grains: brown rice, quinoa, millet, beans. The other 20 percent is lean meats: grass-fed organic steak, duck every now and then, and chicken.” Weight Lost: How This 50-Year-Old Woman Dropped 46 Pounds | Good health 24h
You’ve heard they're bad for you. But trans fats also slow down your body's ability to burn fat. "They have an altered shape and make your biochemistry run funny," Hyman says, explaining that trans fat binds to fat and liver cells and slows metabolism. Eating trans fat can also lead to insulin resistance and inflammation, both of which cripple metabolism and can cause weight gain.
Difficulty on a Scale of 1 (I Feel Great!) to 10 (It Ruined My Life!): 1. This is worth a try! If you’re someone who doesn’t like to impose major restrictions on yourselves, adopting a low-key plan to eat fewer carbs (when possible) is relaxed and completely doable. Especially if you don’t beat yourself for the occasional slip-up, like eating pasta in bed, which happens to each and every one of us!
We aren’t sure there are many people who'd turn to Jersey Shore star Snooki (née Nicole Elizabeth Polizzi) for healthy living advice. If there was one diet that made total sense for her, though, it’s the cookie diet. In 2010 she made headlines for turning to this odd snack-based regimen in an effort to lose all the weight she gained from binge drinking. "I eat six cookies a day and then I have like chicken for dinner, or fish,” she said of the diet. “Something healthy.”
The truth: The diet is based on the misleading idea that you can change your blood pH with food. While the pH of the stomach is acidic, the blood is slightly alkaline, something the food you eat can't change. Still, one positive part of the diet is that it advocates eating more fruits and veggies, something most dietitians agree we should all be doing.
It’s no surprise that Victoria Secret models follow some strict diets, and Rosie Huntington-Whiteley is no exception. She follows a plan by Dr. Nigma Talib, who practices naturopathy, which is a system of treatment that focuses on diets, herbs, vitamins, and natural agents to heal, rather than surgery and prescription drugs. Dr. Talib doesn’t let you have sugar, dairy, gluten, or alcohol.
hormones after 40
How My Day Went: It was incredible. Not heeding to a super restrictive set of rules (ahem, “avoid this list of random vegetables!”) made me feel happier and more comfortable, and I think life is supposed to be happy and comfortable, for the most part. For breakfast, I met up with my friends at a diner and ordered a veggie omelet with a side of home fries and toast. I only had three bites of the toast and two bites of the home fries. While not finishing my entire plate is incredibly out-of-character for me (finishing the whole plate is, like, 90 percent of my personality), I was satiated from the omelet and happy to be out and about catching up with my friends, rather than eating baby food in bed like a deranged recluse. For lunch, I made myself a Cobb salad with avocado, egg, turkey and bacon. The meal was so filling that I almost didn’t miss the seven slices of bread with which I typically accompany my salads.
Now, more than ever, you should put down the sugary sweets, calorie-laden drinks and refined flour. These have empty calories that you can't afford regularly, especially when you're trying to lose weight. Pair your protein with 1/2 cup of whole grains, leafy greens and small amounts of heart-healthy fat, such as that found in nuts, avocados, fatty fish and seeds.
Great question. We almost always get our grass-fed bones from the farmer’s market. We traveled around the country living out of an RV for the past year, and have been able to find great pastured beef bones at farmer’s markets just about everywhere we go. To make it easier, though, when you find a good source, stock up on the marrow bones and freeze them for later.
In a study conducted by Swiss and German researchers, lucky participants ate about 1.5 ounces of dark chocolate daily for two weeks. Ultimately, these chocolate nibblers had lower stress-hormone levels and a more regulated metabolism than a control group. Scientists speculate that chemicals in cocoa, such as flavonoids, play a role in regulating metabolism by alleviating stress that can cause your fat-burning engines to go on the fritz. Should you think this is a license to go wild, take heed: We’re talking small amounts of high-quality dark chocolate. Researchers say 1.5 ounces is enough.